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Ihsan by Tasawwuf Sufism  In summary, a Mouride aspires to achieve Islam by following the basic recommendations of Shariat. This includes but is not limited to performing individual obligations Fard Ayn such as prayer, ablution, fasting, pilgrimage and giving charity.
The members of all the Senegalese brotherhoods claim that their founders were such renewers. The Mouride beliefs are based on Quranic and Sufi traditions and influenced by the Qadiri and Tijani brotherhoods, as well as the works by the scholar al-Ghazali. Amadou Bamba is known to have written more than books in Classical Arabic , all of which are based on the Quran and Hadith.
Parents sometimes send their sons to live with the marabout as talibes rather than giving them a conventional education.
These boys receive Islamic training and are instilled with the doctrine of hard work. Even before independence, French colonial administrators recognized that the Mouride brotherhood was well-respected among the Senegalese and partnered with them to promote political and social order.
Traditional Wolof aristocrats had proven problematic as intermediaries for the colonial authorities, and they hoped that Mouride leaders would be more effective and legitimate.
This was the first instance of their role in politics. After universal suffrage was given in , Senegal saw a rapid increase in the number of voters, almost triple the number just 10 years prior.
This swift increase meant more power for the marabout whose outreach spread largely over the rural and peasant communities, which now had the opportunity to vote. Marabouts for their part seek to maintain and ensure that the state remains dependant on them for influential control over citizens. One such mean is the power the religious leaders have as magicians. Another aspect of influence that the religious leaders have is the material means to influence local leaders and politicians.
The shaikh religious leaders can seek to buy the agreement through gifts and help to promote the career or threat to ruin the career of these local politicians and leaders. What is more common is to see them exert their influence over their followers and use this in return to gain a larger presence in the Senegalese politics.
Abdoulaye Wade who is the immediate former president of Senegal is also a devout Mouride. Economic influence[ edit ] Groundnuts are the third largest export from Senegal after fish and phosphates. After ten years of dedicated work, laborers then received a share of land large estates were divided up among the laborers.
The methods used by the marabout have led to a constant depletion of the forests in Senegal and have taken much of the nutrients out of the soil.
Government agencies have made attempts to help the marabout become more efficient in groundnut production, such as providing incentives for the workers to slow down their production. Ordinary followers donate part of their income to the Mouridiya. Further information: Muslim brotherhoods of Senegal and Islam in Senegal Islam is central to the political sociology of Senegal: the religious elite carry great weight in national politics; political discourse is replete with references and appeals to Islam.
There is virtually no opposition to the principle of the secular state, socio-political cleavages based on religion, whether between Muslim and non-Muslim or between Sufi orders, are also virtually non-existent. The essential Islamic core lies in the shared belief in the fundamental unity of the Muslim world. Common religious affiliation has played a role in defusing the potential for tensions that arise from other social cleavages.
There however remains a potential for ethnic and caste divides to enter the Senegalese socio-political organization. In Senegal, Islamic practice usually requires membership in religious brotherhoods that are dedicated to the marabouts of these groups. Marabouts are believed to be the mediators between Allah and the people.
These acts are believed to bring them a better life and solve their problems as well. Even taxi and bus drivers fill their vehicles with stickers, paintings and photos of the marabouts of their particular brotherhoods. It can be a charismatic or a clientelistic relationship. In a charismatic relationship demonstrations of devotion and abnegation towards the marabouts can only explained because their talibes see them as intercessors or even intermediaries with god. This charismatic relationship is reinforced and complemented by a parallel clientelistic relationship between marabout and follower.
The results is that marabouts are expected to provide certain material benefits to their follower in addition to the spiritual ones. Mouride social organization was developed in the context of the expanding peanut economy and its unique formulation was adapted to the economic imperatives of that context.
The most distinctive institutional expression of Mouride agro-religious innovation is the daara, an agricultural community of young men in the service of a marabout. These collective farms were largely responsible for the expansion of peanut cultivation.
As a result, marabouts confront the problem of recruiting and retaining followers. People at times confront a choice of which marabout to follow, the level of attachment to that marabout, and the domains or situations in which to follow him. While there is a widespread belief in the marabout system in Senegal and a strong commitment to it, it is not necessarily accompanied by an absolute attachment to any one living marabout.
Most of these cities with a large Senegalese immigrant population have a Keur Serigne Touba Residence of the Master of Touba , a seat for the community which accommodates meetings and prayers while also being used as a provisional residence for newcomers.
They often send money back to the brotherhood leaders in Touba. His intent was devotional, and the album was received that way in the West, but local some Mourides mistook "Egypt" for pop music using Islamic prayers, and initially expressed displeasure, which frustrated Youssou.
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