It comes under the basic services in all mobile networks along with voice and SMS. It does not require the internet connection from the device, this enables USSD to run on very basic phones. According to gsm network specifications, a USSD message can be a maximum of bytes long. This makes it very important to reach people where most of the population living in rural areas and can not afford smartphones. The number of user-entered characters depends on the encoding scheme.
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It comes under the basic services in all mobile networks along with voice and SMS. It does not require the internet connection from the device, this enables USSD to run on very basic phones. According to gsm network specifications, a USSD message can be a maximum of bytes long.
This makes it very important to reach people where most of the population living in rural areas and can not afford smartphones. The number of user-entered characters depends on the encoding scheme. USSD enables a mobile operator to provide, call back service while in roaming, location-based services, balance services, content marketing based on location, etc.
To access a service over USSD, a mobile subscriber dials a known string e. A mobile subscriber needs to dial a number, sometimes it is long and sometimes it is short. The dialing a number initiates a call towards the IVR and sets up a voice session. The roaming network routes the USSD code towards the home network. The code should not be from any MMI code used by the device. We are providing details of MMI code in the coming paragraphs.
USSD code decides what services a mobile user need. MMI mode and Application Mode. In MMI mode mobile user dials string to start a menu based session with the home network.
For example, the GSM network provides many supplementary services to a mobile subscriber. Supplementary services are, call forwarding no conditional, call forwarding when busy, etc. These days mobile phones are very advance smartphones for supplementary service management. But before smartphones, only MMI Code was the option. Phone manufacturers can define its own MMI codes too. This provides flexibility to the manufactures for providing new features and can compete in the market.
But these services should be supported on all GSM phones, to achieve this every phone comes with MMI or man-machine interface to interact with the phone.
A code can display device information e. Here 21 is the supplementary service code. If a user dials a code that is not in the list of MMI codes provided by the device manufacturer, the dialed string is transferred in the USSD message from the device to the home network.
Mostly it is co-located with the VLR. The profile is downloaded from HLR upon a location update g sm map protocol procedure. The roaming network provides services based on the profile downloaded. USSD Gateway : This is a dedicated node that converts menu based business logic to the signaling on wire and vise Versa. When a balance request e. The following is required to develop a USSD application. It is not required if the service logic only involves network initiated USSD.
There can be multiple mobile operators. This is the address of the VAS node in the mobile network. Develop the actual application on top of the stack. The receiving side drives a user-readable string from bytes value and data coding scheme. A character may be encoded in different bits or byte sizes. String : This is the sequence of characters shown on the mobile device or a device sends to the home network.
The size of the string depends on the encoding scheme. Both peers assigned an IP address. SCTP provides error-free messages in both directions. An ss7 point code identifies an m3ua layer. Other layers belong to the SS7 protocol standard.
USSD call flows
Different handsets handle the notification differently, but most handsets will beep and display the text sent to it by the application. This information could even be a menu to which the user may respond. USSD Push is used for applications such as subscriber surveys, payment verification and even mobile marketing. The handset recognises such numbers and will use the USSD bearer instead of a voice call. Instead of calling another subscriber or a service, the handset communicates with the USSD infrastructure. There was therefore no session held between the handset and the application.
Unstructured Supplementary Service Data
Provides much higher speed than its previous generation which is 3G. LTE is the data only network. On LTE all services will be on data network. This will be after full implementation of IMS. IMS is for deploying multimedia services over IP network. If the network does not support IMS, the roaming network does the fall back to 3G. Which attaches the phone.
USSD Call Flow
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