Classification[ edit ] The development of ascites as shown on this abdominal ultrasound in cirrhotics that is refractory to the use of diuretic medications is associated with type 2 HRS. Hepatorenal syndrome is a particular and common type of kidney failure that affects individuals with liver cirrhosis or, less commonly, with fulminant liver failure. In both categories, the deterioration in kidney function is quantified either by an elevation in creatinine level in the blood, or by decreased clearance of creatinine in the urine. Vasoconstrictors and volume expanders are the mainstay of treatment. Type 2 HRS is thought to be part of a spectrum of illness associated with increased pressures in the portal vein circulation , which begins with the development of fluid in the abdomen ascites.
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Your doctor may first suspect you have this condition during a physical examination. They will look for signs of HRS such as: swollen breast tissue fluid buildup in the abdomen jaundice Diagnosing HRS means excluding other causes of kidney failure. This requires a series of blood and urine tests. The tests will help your doctor evaluate your liver and kidney function. In rare cases, HRS can occur in patients whose liver has been damaged by other causes than cirrhosis. Treatment of Hepatorenal Syndrome Medications called vasoconstrictors can help with the low blood pressure caused by HRS.
Dialysis may be used to improve kidney symptoms. Dialysis filters harmful wastes, excess salt, and excess water from your blood. Liver transplants are the most effective treatment for HRS. The waiting list for a liver transplant is long and many people die before a liver is available. If you can get a transplant, your chance of survival improves greatly. HRS is almost always fatal.
However, a liver transplant can extend your life. Complications of HRS normally appear during end-stage kidney disease. They include: fluid overload.