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Most of the liquid fuels are derived from fossil fuels mainly from crude oil. Coal tar fuel is a byproduct liquid fuel produced during the cleaning of the raw coke oven gas in the coke oven and byproduct plant. Liquid fuels are normally used in the steel plant for the production of steam for power generation, for heating purpose in various furnaces of the plant, for injection in blast furnace, and for the operation of locomotives and the mobile equipment.
Fig 1 Liquid fuels used in a steel plant Liquid fuels are chemically stable and incompatible with strong oxidizers. They do not react vigorously with common materials but can react with oxidizing agents. Liquid fuels are stored in a dry cool, well — ventilated area away from heat and flame. They are also kept away oxidizing agents. Furnace oil Furnace oil is a fuel oil which is dark and viscous. It is a residual fuel oil which is obtained by blending residual products from various refining processes with suitable diluent usually middle distillates to obtain the required fuel oil grades.
The fuel oil grades are similar in nature and are being marketed under different specifications in various countries. Furnace oil is used mainly in different furnaces of the steel plant, in power plant boilers for raising steam and for injection in the blast furnace.
It is also sometimes used in air preheaters. Furnace oil is having flash point above 66 deg C. Since this is a residual fuel, there has to be gradual filtration system to prevent the choking of filter and fuel nozzles. Due to its viscous nature, it is normally to be heated to improve its flowability and to a proper temperature for proper atomization. Usually for furnace oil, gear pumps are preferred to avoid cavitation problems. Typically the calorific value of the furnace oil is 10, kcal per kg.
It is generally stored in vertical as well as horizontal tanks, above ground or even underground in some cases. The dimensions and capacities of these tanks are predefined and are to meet the statutory requirements for fuel storages. For direct burning, furnace oil is viscous as well as not suitable for complete combustion.
It is pre-heated to 55 deg C onwards, depending upon application. The flow increases with temperature and it improves the combustion also. A water based scrubber is used in the exhaust chimney of furnace, which arrests considerable amount of carbon soot and improves the emissions. FO is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons.
Its CAS number is It has a colour ranging from brown to black with a diesel like smell. It is a flammable liquid. Its boiling point ranges from deg C to deg C. Its vapour density is 3. It is insoluble in water and is also lighter than water.
It is a neutral liquid neither acidic nor basic. Typical properties of furnace oil are at Tab 1. Tab 1 Typical properties of furnace oil Sl.
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