If a new environment, which has become permanent for some race of animals, induces new habits in these animals, that is to say, leads them into new activities which become habitual, the result will be the use of some one part in preference to some other part, and in some cases the total disuse of some part no longer necessary. Nothing of all this can be considered as hypothesis or private opinion; on the contrary, they are truths which, in order to be made clear, only require attention and the observation of facts. Snakes have adopted the habit of crawling on the ground and hiding in the grass; so that their body, as a result of continually repeated efforts at elongation for the purpose of passing through narrow spaces, has acquired a considerable length, quite out of proportion to its size. Now, legs would have been quite useless to these animals and consequently unused. Long legs would have interfered with their need of crawling, and very short legs would have been incapable of moving their body, since they could only have had four.

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He was one of the first to come up with the idea of evolution in time, occurring and proceeding by natural laws within a genealogic classification, from the most primitive to the most complex species of all living things on earth up to the human being.

He gave the term biology a broader meaning by coining the term for individual sciences, chemistry, Phylosophie Zoologique LAMARCK Lamarck was a French Naturalist, one of the pioneers of the science, a biologist, and an academic.

He gave the term biology a broader meaning by coining the term for individual sciences, chemistry, meteorology, geology, and botany-zoology.

There are some similarities in their respective philosophies but also some decisive differences. According to Lamarck, the evolution of living things is based on an inherent tendency of complexification. Darwin rejected any such idea. His own theory of evolution is based on the permanent adaptation of living things to their environment.

The other significant difference is the theory of genetic inheritance of acquired characteristics. Such a theory has been an accepted scientific fact since Aristotle. These theories were soon forgotten and superseded by chemical and biological discoveries in the following century. The one mayor and outstanding achievement by Lamarck was his broad and precious classification of invertebrate animals which is still appreciated today.

The primary interest of this book for me is once again its historical and philosophic value. Situating scientific progression through centuries, observing from the thousands of dead-end research and advances, made from the Ancient Sumerians, Greeks and Romans, to the modern world.

I own an English translation published in and enjoyed reading it 20 years or so ago. For instance, Freud came to believe in the inheritance of acquired traits from This classic work is a must read for any serious student of evolutionary theory or the history of biology. For instance, Freud came to believe in the inheritance of acquired traits from reading Darwin, long before he finally read Lamarck. The thing Lamarck was truly wrong about, if we need something to criticize him for, was his promulgation of the Neoplatonist idea of the "Scala Naturae" or "Great Chain of Being," which he goes on and on about.

Lamarck was a good zoologist and profound thinker for his time and this important book is still worth reading today. I should probably rate it five stars for its historical importance but it is a bit of a slog for the modern reader to get through.

What the hell happened after the early twentieth century? This is the first comprehensive theory of evolution proposed, based upon inductive reasoning. In order to enjoy contemporary scientific writing, by contrast, I think you have to have some sort of neuroses.

Scientific writing today is Published in , this book is testament to the fact that scientists used to be good writers. Scientific writing today is like reading a printout of 0s and 1s from a computer. This book is a must read for anyone even remotely interested in evolutionary biology. Five stars!


Zoological Philosophy

He became known for his work on the taxonomy of the invertebrates , especially of molluscs. However, he is mainly remembered for the theory that now bears his name, Lamarckism , and in particular his view that the environment called by Lamarck the conditions of life gave rise to permanent, inherited , evolutionary changes in animals. In the Philosophie zoologique, Lamarck proposed that species could acquire new characteristics from influences in their environment, in two rules that he named as laws. His second law held that any changes made in this way would be inherited. It follows that the species that terminate each branch of the general series are related, at least on one side, to the other neighboring species that shade into them. Importance des Rapports 39 III.


Zoological philosophy;



Zoological philosophy; an exposition with regard to the natural history of animals ..




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