There, Glinka took lessons at the conservatory with Francesco Basilialthough he struggled with counterpointwhich he found irksome. When it was first performed on 9 Decemberit met with a noocturne reception, although it subsequently gained popularity. Compositions by Mikhail Glinka. When he left school his father wanted him to join the Foreign Office, and he noctunre appointed assistant secretary of the Department of Public Highways. Retrieved 18 October Another visit to Paris followed in where he spent two years, living quietly and making frequent visits to the botanical and zoological gardens.
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His wealthy father had retired as an army captain, and the family had a strong tradition of loyalty and service to the tsars , while several members of his extended family had also developed a lively interest in culture. The only music he heard in his youthful confinement was the sounds of the village church bells and the folk songs of passing peasant choirs. The church bells were tuned to a dissonant chord and so his ears became used to strident harmony.
While his nurse would sometimes sing folksongs, the peasant choirs who sang using the podgolosochnaya technique an improvised style — literally under the voice — which uses improvised dissonant harmonies below the melody influenced the way he later felt free to emancipate himself from the smooth progressions of Western harmony. At the age of about ten he heard them play a clarinet quartet by the Finnish composer Bernhard Henrik Crusell.
It had a profound effect upon him. While his governess taught him Russian, German, French, and geography, he also received instruction on the piano and the violin. At the age of 13, Glinka went to the capital, Saint Petersburg , to study at a school for children of the nobility. Here he learned Latin, English, and Persian, studied mathematics and zoology, and considerably widened his musical experience. He had three piano lessons from John Field , the Irish composer of nocturnes , who spent some time in Saint Petersburg.
He then continued his piano lessons with Charles Mayer and began composing. The work was light, which allowed Glinka to settle into the life of a musical dilettante , frequenting the drawing rooms and social gatherings of the city. He was already composing a large amount of music, such as melancholy romances which amused the rich amateurs. His songs are among the most interesting part of his output from this period.
The journey took a leisurely pace, ambling uneventfully through Germany and Switzerland, before they settled in Milan. There, Glinka took lessons at the conservatory with Francesco Basili , although he struggled with counterpoint , which he found irksome. Although he spent his three years in Italy listening to singers of the day, romancing women with his music, and meeting many famous people including Mendelssohn and Berlioz , he became disenchanted with Italy. He realized that his mission in life was to return to Russia, write in a Russian manner, and do for Russian music what Donizetti and Bellini had done for Italian music.
His return route took him through the Alps, and he stopped for a while in Vienna, where he heard the music of Franz Liszt. He stayed for another five months in Berlin , during which time he studied composition under the distinguished teacher Siegfried Dehn. A Capriccio on Russian themes for piano duet and an unfinished Symphony on two Russian themes were important products of this period.
Career[ edit ] While in Berlin, Glinka had become enamored with a beautiful and talented singer, for whom he composed Six Studies for Contralto. There he reunited with his mother, and made the acquaintance of Maria Petrovna Ivanova.
After he courted her for a brief period, the two married. The marriage was short-lived, as Maria was tactless and uninterested in his music. Although his initial fondness for her was said to have inspired the trio in the first act of opera A Life for the Tsar , his naturally sweet disposition coarsened under the constant nagging of his wife and her mother. After separating, she remarried. Glinka moved in with his mother, and later with his sister, Lyudmila Shestakova.
It was originally entitled Ivan Susanin. Set in , it tells the story of the Russian peasant and patriotic hero Ivan Susanin who sacrifices his life for the Tsar by leading astray a group of marauding Poles who were hunting him. It was a great success at its premiere on December 9, , under the direction of Catterino Cavos , who had written an opera on the same subject in Italy. The Tsar rewarded Glinka for his work with a ring valued at 4, rubles.
During the Soviet era, the opera was staged under its original title Ivan Susanin. In , at the suggestion of the Tsar, he went off to Ukraine to gather new voices for the choir; the 19 new boys he found earned him another 1, rubles from the Tsar.
He soon embarked on his second opera: Ruslan and Lyudmila. The plot, based on the tale by Alexander Pushkin , was concocted in 15 minutes by Konstantin Bakhturin , a poet who was drunk at the time. He uses a descending whole tone scale in the famous overture. This is associated with the villainous dwarf Chernomor who has abducted Lyudmila, daughter of the Prince of Kiev. There is much Italianate coloratura , and Act 3 contains several routine ballet numbers, but his great achievement in this opera lies in his use of folk melody which becomes thoroughly infused into the musical argument.
Much of the borrowed folk material is oriental in origin. When it was first performed on December 9, , it met with a cool reception, although it subsequently gained popularity. His spirits rose when he travelled to Paris and Spain. Another visit to Paris followed in where he spent two years, living quietly and making frequent visits to the botanical and zoological gardens.
From there he moved to Berlin where, after five months, he died suddenly on February 15, , following a cold. He was buried in Berlin but a few months later his body was taken to Saint Petersburg and re-interred in the cemetery of the Alexander Nevsky Monastery. The value of creativity[ edit ] Glinka was the beginning of a new direction in the development of music in Russia.
Different historical events were often used in the music, but for the first time they were presented in a realistic manner. Soussanine is an opera where the main character is the people, Ruslan is the mythical, deeply Russian intrigue, and in Guest, the drama dominates over the softness of the beauty of sound.
Since this time, the Russian culture began to occupy an increasingly prominent place in world culture. In , Mitrofan Belyayev founded the "Glinka Prize", which was awarded annually. Besides the well-known overtures to the operas especially the brilliantly energetic overture to Ruslan , his major orchestral works include the symphonic poem Kamarinskaya , based on Russian folk tunes, and two Spanish works, A Night in Madrid , and Jota Aragonesa Glinka also composed many art songs , many piano pieces, and some chamber music.
In , the Supreme Soviet of Russia adopted it as the regional anthem of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic , which to that point had been the only Soviet constituent state without its own regional anthem. Глинки  Novosibirsk State Conservatory Russian : Новосибирская государственная консерватория академия им. Глинки  Magnitogorsk State Conservatory Russian : Магнитогорская государственная консерватория  Soviet astronomer Lyudmila Chernykh named a minor planet Glinka in his honor.
It was discovered in
La separation, nocturne for piano in F minor, G. xvi204
Samuzilkree From there he moved to Berlin where, after five months, he died suddenly on 15 Februaryfollowing a cold. Another visit to Paris followed in where he spent two years, living quietly and making frequent visits to the botanical and zoological gardens. Although the music is still more Italianate than Russian, Glinka shows superb handling of the recitative which binds the whole work, and the orchestration is masterly, foreshadowing the orchestral writing of later Russian composers. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mikhail Glinka. During the Soviet era, the opera was staged under its original title Ivan Susanin. InGlinka was installed as the instructor of the Imperial Chapel Choirwith a yearly salary of 25, rubles, and lodging at the court.