Amazon Inspire Digital Educational Resources. The author traces events from the cicil rights movement in to the height of the Troubles in and examines the conditions created for a protracted confrontation. Tom Blackburn marked it as to-read Jan 17, There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Just a moment while we sign you in to your Goodreads account. There are no discussion topics on this book yet. Sean rated it really liked it Oct 22, Get fast, free shipping with Amazon Prime.
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See also: Northern Ireland civil rights movement Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom which has witnessed violence over many decades, known as the Troubles , arising from tensions between the British Unionist , Protestant majority and the Irish Nationalist , Catholic minority following the Partition of Ireland in The civil rights struggle in Northern Ireland can be traced to activists in Dungannon, led by Austin Currie , who were fighting for equal access to public housing for the members of the Catholic community.
This domestic issue would not have led to a fight for civil rights were it not for the fact that being a registered householder was a qualification for local government franchise in Northern Ireland. The CSJ promised the Catholic community that their cries would be heard. They challenged the government and promised that they would take their case to the Commission for Human Rights in Strasbourg and to the United Nations.
NICRA campaigned in the late sixties and early seventies, consciously modelling itself on the American civil rights movement and using similar methods of civil resistance. NICRA organised marches and protests to demand equal rights and an end to discrimination.
NICRA originally had five main demands: one man, one vote an end to discrimination in housing an end to discrimination in local government an end to the gerrymandering of district boundaries, which limited the effect of Catholic voting the disbandment of the B-Specials , an entirely Protestant police reserve, perceived as sectarian.
All of these specific demands were aimed at an ultimate goal that had been the one of women at the very beginning: the end of discrimination. Civil rights activists all over Northern Ireland soon launched a campaign of civil resistance. Violence escalated, resulting in the rise of the Provisional Irish Republican Army IRA from the Catholic community, a group reminiscent of those from the War of Independence and the Civil War that occurred in the s that had launched a campaign of violence to end British rule in Northern Ireland.
Loyalist paramilitaries countered this with a defensive campaign of violence and the British government responded with a policy of internment without trial of suspected IRA members. For more than people, the internment lasted several years. The huge majority of those interned by the British forces were Catholic. In , in a case brought by the government of the Republic of Ireland against the government of the United Kingdom , the European Court of Human Rights ruled that the interrogation techniques approved for use by the British army on internees in amounted to "inhuman and degrading" treatment.
The Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association fought for the end of discrimination toward Catholics and did not take a position on the legitimacy of the state. The Battle of the Bogside started on 12 August when an Apprentice Boys, a Protestant order, parade passed through Waterloo Place, where a large crowd was gathered at the mouth of William Street, on the edge of the Bogside.
Different accounts describe the first outbreak of violence, with reports stating that it was either an attack by youth from the Bogside on the RUC, or fighting broke out between Protestants and Catholics. The violence escalated and barricades were erected. Proclaiming this district to be the Free Derry , Bogsiders carried on fights with the RUC for days using stones and petrol bombs. The government finally withdrew the RUC and replaced it with the army, which disbanded the crowds of Catholics who were barricaded in the Bogside.
Fourteen unarmed Catholic civil rights marchers protesting against internment were shot dead by the British army and many were left wounded on the streets. The peace process has made significant gains in recent years. Through open dialogue from all parties, a state of ceasefire by all major paramilitary groups has lasted. Civil rights issues have become less of a concern for many in Northern Ireland over the past 20 years as laws and policies protecting their rights, and forms of affirmative action, have been implemented for all government offices and many private businesses.
Tensions still exist, but the vast majority of citizens are no longer affected by violence. They enacted legislation meant to enshrine French as the language of business in the province, while also controversially restricting the usage of English on signs and restricting the eligibility of students to be taught in English.
Movements for civil rights in the United States Main articles: Civil rights movement — , Civil rights movement — , civil rights movement , and Timeline of the civil rights movement Movements for civil rights in the United States include noted legislation and organized efforts to abolish public and private acts of racial discrimination against African Americans and other disadvantaged groups between and , particularly in the southern United States.
It is sometimes referred to as the Second Reconstruction era, alluding to the unresolved issues of the Reconstruction Era — Ethnicity equity issues See also: Racial integration and Jim Crow laws After , the system of Jim Crow , disenfranchisement, and second class citizenship degraded the citizenship rights of African Americans, especially in the South.
It was the nadir of American race relations. There were three main aspects: racial segregation — upheld by the United States Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson in —, legally mandated by southern governments—voter suppression or disfranchisement in the southern states, and private acts of violence and mass racial violence aimed at African Americans, unhindered or encouraged by government authorities.
Although racial discrimination was present nationwide, the combination of law, public and private acts of discrimination, marginal economic opportunity, and violence directed toward African Americans in the southern states became known as Jim Crow. These efforts were a hallmark of the early American Civil Rights Movement from to However, by , blacks became frustrated by gradual approaches to implement desegregation by federal and state governments and the "massive resistance" by whites.
The black leadership adopted a combined strategy of direct action with nonviolence , sometimes resulting in nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience. Some of the acts of nonviolence and civil disobedience produced crisis situations between practitioners and government authorities.
It had been a fairly complicated affair to bring together various leaders of civil rights, religious and labor groups. As the name of the march implies, many compromises had to be made in order to unite the followers of so many different causes.
The "March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom" emphasized the combined purposes of the march and the goals that each of the leaders aimed at. The March on Washington organizers and organizational leaders, informally named the " Big Six ", were A. Although they came from different backgrounds and political interests, these organizers and leaders were intent on the peacefulness of the march, which had its own marshal to ensure that the event would be peaceful and respectful of the law.
A lot of feminine civil rights groups had participated in the organization of the march, but when it came to actual activity women were denied the right to speak and were relegated to figurative roles in the back of the stage. As some female participants noticed, the March can be remembered for the "I Have a Dream" speech but for some female activists it was a new awakening, forcing black women not only to fight for civil rights but also to engage in the Feminist movement.
Board of Education case that nullified the legal article of " separate but equal " and made segregation legally impermissible, and the passages of the Civil Rights Act ,. Black Power movement See also: Black Panther Party , Black nationalism , and pan-Africanism By the emergence of the Black Power movement —75 began to gradually eclipse the original " integrated power " aims of the successful Civil Rights Movement that had been espoused by Martin Luther King Jr.
Advocates of Black Power argued for black self-determination , and asserted that the assimilation inherent in integration robs Africans of their common heritage and dignity. For example, the theorist and activist Omali Yeshitela argues that Africans have historically fought to protect their lands, cultures, and freedoms from European colonialists , and that any integration into the society which has stolen another people and their wealth is an act of treason.
Today, most Black Power advocates have not changed their self-sufficiency argument. Racism still exists worldwide, and some believe that blacks in the United States, on the whole, did not assimilate into U. Blacks arguably became even more oppressed, this time partially by "their own" people in a new black stratum of the middle class and the ruling class. One of the most public manifestations of the Black Power movement took place in the Olympics, when two African-Americans, Tommie Smith and John Carlos , stood on the podium doing a Black Power salute.
This act is still remembered today as the Olympics Black Power salute. Chicano Movement See also: Chicano nationalism and Brown Berets The Chicano Movement occurred during the civil rights era that sought political empowerment and social inclusion for Mexican-Americans around a generally nationalist argument. The Chicano movement blossomed in the s and was active through the late s in various regions of the U.
The movement had roots in the civil rights struggles that had preceded it, adding to it the cultural and generational politics of the era. The early heroes of the movement— Rodolfo Gonzales in Denver and Reies Tijerina in New Mexico—adopted a historical account of the preceding hundred and twenty-five years that had obscured much of Mexican-American history. Gonzales and Tijerina embraced a nationalism that identified the failure of the United States government to live up to its promises in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
That version of the past did not, but take into account the history of those Mexicans who had immigrated to the United States. It also gave little attention to the rights of undocumented immigrants in the United States in the s— which is not surprising, since immigration did not have the political significance it later acquired.
It was a decade later when activists, such as Bert Corona in California, embraced the rights of undocumented workers and helped broaden the movement to include their issues. When the movement dealt with practical problems in the s, most activists focused on the most immediate issues confronting Mexican Americans; unequal educational and employment opportunities, political disfranchisement, and police brutality.
In the heady days of the late s, when the student movement was active around the globe, the Chicano movement brought about more or less spontaneous actions, such as the mass walkouts by high school students in Denver and East Los Angeles in and the Chicano Moratorium in Los Angeles in Some appeared to be spontaneous outcomes of protest gatherings, but others included armed seizure of public facilities.
The Alcatraz Island occupation of , although commonly associated with NAM, pre-dated the organization, but was a catalyst for its formation. Activists occupied the Custer County Courthouse in , though police routed the occupation after a riot took place. In activists and military forces confronted each other in the Wounded Knee incident. The standoff lasted 71 days, and two men died in the violence.
Gender equity issues Main article: Feminist movement in the United States —82 If the period associated with first-wave feminism focused upon absolute rights such as suffrage which led to women attaining the right to vote in the early part of the 20th century , the period of the second-wave feminism was concerned with the issues such as changing social attitudes and economic, reproductive, and educational equality including the ability to have careers in addition to motherhood, or the right to choose not to have children between the genders and addressed the rights of female minorities.
The new feminist movement, which spanned from to , explored economic equality, political power at all levels, professional equality, reproductive freedoms, issues with the family, educational equality, sexuality, and many other issues. LGBT rights and gay liberation Main articles: Gay Liberation and LGBT social movements Since the midth century in Germany , social reformers have used the language of civil rights to argue against the oppression of same-sex sexuality, same-sex emotional intimacy, and gender variance.
Largely, but not exclusively, these LGBT movements have characterized gender variant and homosexually oriented people as a minority group s ; this was the approach taken by the homophile movement of the s, s and early s.
In order to achieve such liberation , consciousness raising and direct action were employed. Lesbians and gays were urged to " come out " and publicly reveal their sexuality to family, friends and colleagues as a form of activism, and to counter shame with gay pride. The lesbian group Lavender Menace was also formed in the U.
Lesbianism was advocated as a feminist choice for women, and the first currents of lesbian separatism began to emerge. By the late s, the radicalism of Gay Liberation was eclipsed by a return to a more formal movement that became known as the Gay and Lesbian Rights Movement. Soviet Union Main article: Human rights movement in the Soviet Union In the s, the early years of the Brezhnev stagnation , dissidents in the Soviet Union increasingly turned their attention civil and eventually human rights concerns.
The fight for civil and human rights focused on issues of freedom of expression , freedom of conscience , freedom to emigrate , punitive psychiatry , and the plight of political prisoners.
Significantly, Soviet dissidents of the s introduced the "legalist" approach of avoiding moral and political commentary in favor of close attention to legal and procedural issues. Following several landmark trials of writers Sinyavsky-Daniel trial, the trials of Alexander Ginzburg and Yuri Galanskov and an associated crackdown on dissidents by the KGB , coverage of arrests and trials in samizdat unsanctioned press became more common.
This activity eventually led to the founding of the Chronicle of Current Events in April The unofficial newsletter reported violations of civil rights and judicial procedure by the Soviet government and responses to those violations by citizens across the USSR. All of these activities came at great personal risk and with repercussions ranging from dismissal from work and studies to many years of imprisonment in labor camps and being subjected to punitive psychiatry.
The rights-based strategy of dissent merged with the idea of human rights. Though faced with the loss of many members to prisons, labor camps, psychiatric institutions and exile, they documented abuses, wrote appeals to international human rights bodies, collected signatures for petitions, and attended trials.
The signing of the Helsinki Accords containing human rights clauses provided civil rights campaigners with a new hope to use international instruments.
Since there were no parties other than the Communist Party in the country and it was indirectly managed by the Soviet Union. Unlike other countries of Central and Eastern Europe, the communist take-over in Czechoslovakia in was, although as brutal as elsewhere, a genuine popular movement. Reform in the country did not lead to the convulsions seen in Hungary.
Patton could have liberated the city earlier. This was important for the spread of pro-Russian and pro-communist propaganda that came right after the war.
For these reasons, the people voted for communists in the elections, the last democratic poll to take place there for a long time. From the middle of the s, Czechs and Slovaks showed increasing signs of rejection of the existing regime. Czechoslovakia was in the middle of the defensive line of the Warsaw Pact and its possible defection to the enemy was unacceptable during the Cold War.
This group watched in horror as calls for multi-party elections and other reforms began echoing throughout the country. During the invasion, Soviet tanks ranging in numbers from 5, to 7, occupied the streets.
They were followed by a large number of Warsaw Pact troops ranging from , to ,
From Civil Rights to Armalites: Derry and the Birth of Irish Troubles
The final prices may differ from the prices shown due to specifics of VAT rules About this book From Civil Rights to Armalites traces and analyses the escalation of conflict in Northern Ireland from the first civil rights marches to the verge of full-scale civil war in , focusing on the city of Derry. It explains how a peaceful civil rights campaign gave way to increasing violence, how the IRA became a major political force and how the British army became a major party to the conflict. It provides the essential context for understanding the events of Bloody Sunday and a new chapter brings significant new material to the public debate around the Bloody Sunday Inquiry. He has been a visiting scholar at the University of California, Berkeley, and at the University of Southern California and is the author of the Internet Research Handbook. Stylistically, this reads more like a work of investigative journalism than an academic treatise This really is a superb piece of work.
From Civil Rights to Armalites : Derry and the Birth of the Irish Troubles
See also: Northern Ireland civil rights movement Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom which has witnessed violence over many decades, known as the Troubles , arising from tensions between the British Unionist , Protestant majority and the Irish Nationalist , Catholic minority following the Partition of Ireland in The civil rights struggle in Northern Ireland can be traced to activists in Dungannon, led by Austin Currie , who were fighting for equal access to public housing for the members of the Catholic community. This domestic issue would not have led to a fight for civil rights were it not for the fact that being a registered householder was a qualification for local government franchise in Northern Ireland. The CSJ promised the Catholic community that their cries would be heard. They challenged the government and promised that they would take their case to the Commission for Human Rights in Strasbourg and to the United Nations. NICRA campaigned in the late sixties and early seventies, consciously modelling itself on the American civil rights movement and using similar methods of civil resistance. NICRA organised marches and protests to demand equal rights and an end to discrimination.
Civil rights movements
FROM CIVIL RIGHTS TO ARMALITES PDF