TSJ U Desselberger. They sit with blank stares and elevate spoon feeding to an art form. Handouts are de rigour, with the threat of marking you down in their course assessments. So why not offer them a Noddy Guide to Medical Microbiology, and then we could get on and do something really useful.

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The Social Construction of Gender The people involved, Family members, peers, teachers and people in educational and religious institutions are 25 Reproductive Health usually the first to introduce a child to appropriate codes of gendered behaviour. Place This often corresponds with the kinds of people involved.

The home or family for example, at play, in school or in church for peers, teachers and adults in general. Division of labour: the kind of household chores that girls are expected to do compared to boys; girls work inside the home and boys outside; girls work for others in the home, for example cooking, washing dishes, cleaning the house and washing clothes; boys are sent out on errands; girls do things for boys like serving food, cleaning up after them and doing their washing; boys in some cultures are asked to escort girls in public.

Dress codes: across cultures, girls and boys are expected to be dressed differently right from the moment they are born. These differences may vary across cultures and societies. Physical segregation of boys and girls: in many cultures, especially in Asia, physical segregation starts 26 Reproductive Health at an early age. Common experiences often include, being told not to play with members of the opposite sex, or not to get involved in any activity that will bring one into physical contact with people of the opposite sex.

The kinds of games girls and boys play: girls are not encouraged to play games like football, which involve vigorous physical activity and physical contact with each other; boys are often not allowed to play with dolls or play as homemakers.

Emotional responses: girls and boys are expected to respond differently to the same stimulus; while it is acceptable for girls to cry, it is seen as a weakness in boys. Intellectual responses: there is an expectation that girls are not to talk back or express their opinions. This is often mentioned in relation to school and how teachers pay more attention to boys since they expect more from boys.

In one training program, a participant from Japan told the story of how, when she obtained the highest marks in class, her teacher called her and asked her to agree 27 Reproductive Health that instead he would give the highest marks to the boy who was really second. He explained that it would not be good for the boy to come second and the boys would not treat the girl well if she did better than them.

Class, caste, ethnic and other differences. Explore how differences across class, caste, ethnicity and nationality affect how girls and boys are expected to behave. For example, the physical segregation of boys and girls may not be as strict in other parts.

The social construction of sexuality refers to the process by which sexual thoughts, behaviours, and conditions for instance, virginity are interpreted and given cultural meaning. It incorporates collective and individual beliefs about the nature of the body, about what is considered erotic or offensive, and about what and with whom it is appropriate or inappropriate for men and women according to their age and other characteristics to do or to say about sexuality.

In some cultures, ideologies of sexuality stress female resistance, male aggression, and mutual antagonism in the sex act; in others, they stress reciprocity and mutual pleasure. In many societies child rearing is the sole responsibility of women.

Women handled family businesses.


Lecture Notes – Ethiopia Public Health Training Initiative

Louis Pasteur: Immunity can be produced against infectious agents by vaccination. Immunology Lecture Notes: Immune Responses. Dept, Vet. The protective factors found in the serum of an immunized animal are known as antibodies, which are produced as a result of exposure to an antigen. Antibodies are highly specific and can bind only to the antigen that stimulates their production. This forms the basis of all current vaccination techniques.


Medical microbiology, lecture notes

These principles were maintained in successive editions, while updating the text to take account of advances that clarified understanding of the immune system and the application of this knowledge to medicine. The same criteria have been applied in formulating this sixth edition of Lecture Notes: Immunology. There are Key Objectives at the start of each chapter that focus on the learning outcomes of the chapter and that complement the updated Key Points that act as a succinct summary at the end of each chapter. There are self-assessment questions of various formats based on each chapter of the book with the answers provided separately!


Immunology Lecture Notes: Immune responses


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