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The root directory of the C: drive on system UNC paths must always be fully qualified. They can include relative directory segments. You can use relative paths only by mapping a UNC path to a drive letter. DOS device paths The Windows operating system has a unified object model that points to all resources, including files. These object paths are accessible from the console window and are exposed to the Win32 layer through a special folder of symbolic links that legacy DOS and UNC paths are mapped to.

NET implementations running on Windows starting with. NET Core 1. NET Framework 4. NET Core and in the. NET Framework starting with version 4. The first segment of the DOS device path after the device path specifier identifies the volume or drive. This is significant when calling a method such as Path. GetFullPath String, String with relative directory segments; it is never possible to navigate past the volume.

DOS device paths are fully qualified by definition. Relative directory segments. Current directories never enter into their usage. Example: Ways to refer to the same file The following example illustrates some of the ways in which you can refer to a file when using the APIs in the System. IO namespace.

The example instantiates a FileInfo object and uses its Name and Length properties to display the filename and the length of the file. During normalization, Windows performs the following steps: Identifies the path. Applies the current directory to partially qualified relative paths. Canonicalizes component and directory separators.

Evaluates relative directory components. Trims certain characters. This normalization happens implicitly, but you can do it explicitly by calling the Path. Identifying the path The first step in path normalization is identifying the type of path. They are UNC paths; that is, they begin with two separators without a question mark or period. They are relative to the current directory of a specified drive; that is, they begin with a drive letter, a volume separator, and no component separator C:.

The type of the path determines whether or not a current directory is applied in some way. It also determines what the "root" of the path is. A path that begins with a legacy device name is always interpreted as a legacy device by the Path. GetFullPath String method. UNCs and device paths do not have the current directory applied.

If the path starts with a single component separator, the drive from the current directory is applied. If the path starts with a drive letter, volume separator, and no component separator, the last current directory set from the command shell for the specified drive is applied.

If the last current directory was not set, the drive alone is applied. These "drive relative" paths are a common source of program and script logic errors. If the path starts with something other than a separator, the current drive and current directory are applied.

Important Relative paths are dangerous in multithreaded applications that is, most applications because the current directory is a per-process setting. Any thread can change the current directory at any time. Starting with. NET Core 2. GetFullPath String, String method to get an absolute path from a relative path and the base path the current directory that you want to resolve it against.

If they are present, a series of slashes that follow the first two slashes are collapsed into a single slash. Evaluating relative components As the path is processed, any components or segments that are composed of a single or a double period.

For a double period, the current segment and the parent segment are removed, since the double period refers to the parent directory. The root of the path depends on the type of path. Trimming characters Along with the runs of separators and relative segments removed earlier, some additional characters are removed during normalization: If a segment ends in a single period, that period is removed.

A segment of a single or double period is normalized in the previous step. If the last segment is simply a single or double period, it falls under the relative components rule above. This rule means that you can create a directory name with a trailing space by adding a trailing separator after the space. Important You should never create a directory or filename with a trailing space.

Trailing spaces can make it difficult or impossible to access a directory, and applications commonly fail when attempting to handle directories or files whose names include trailing spaces.

There is one important exception: a device path that begins with a question mark instead of a period. Why would you want to skip normalization?

There are three major reasons: To get access to paths that are normally unavailable but are legal. A file or directory called hidden. On the. Most APIs allow this, with some exceptions. NET Framework. Skipping normalization and max path checks is the only difference between the two device path syntaxes; they are otherwise identical. Be careful with skipping normalization, since you can easily create paths that are difficult for "normal" applications to deal with.

It supports arbitrary length paths up to the maximum string size that Windows can handle. Case and the Windows file system A peculiarity of the Windows file system that non-Windows users and developers find confusing is that path and directory names are case-insensitive.

That is, directory and file names reflect the casing of the strings used when they are created. For example, the method call Directory. If you rename a directory or file to change its case, the directory or file name reflects the case of the string used when you rename it.

For example, the following code renames a file named test. MoveTo ". If you search for a file named "test. TXT, test. TXT, and any other combination of upper- and lowercase letters will match "test. Related Articles.



Start-Process Start one or more processes, optionally as a specific user. The parameter name -ArgumentList is optional. By default, the cmdlet uses the credentials of the current user. Enter the name of an executable file or of a document, such as a. If only a file name is given, use -WorkingDirectory to specify the path. This parameter does not affect the PowerShell profiles.



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The root directory of the C: drive on system UNC paths must always be fully qualified. They can include relative directory segments. You can use relative paths only by mapping a UNC path to a drive letter. DOS device paths The Windows operating system has a unified object model that points to all resources, including files.

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