EADWEARD MUYBRIDGE ANIMAL LOCOMOTION PDF

Each plate in the series shows the same subject in sequential phases of one action. Muybridge recorded varied forms of movement in a wide range of animals, mostly taken at Philadelphia zoo, from pigeons in flight to the subtleties of gait found in sloths, camels and capybaras. Muybridge also documented human subjects walking, running and descending staircases and engaging in boxing, fencing, weight lifting and wrestling. Born in in Kingston upon Thames, London, Muybridge emigrated to America as a young man and worked as a bookseller.

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His pioneering work in photographic studies of motion and early work in motion-picture projection is pivotal in the history of the moving image. Muybridge emigrated to the United States from England in the s, where he became famous for his impressive, vast panoramas of American landscapes, such as the Yosemite valley, and his documentation of the rapidly growing nation, particularly in San Francisco.

Throughout his career, he lectured extensively in North America and Europe about his work, greatly influencing visual artists and the developing fields of scientific and industrial photography. His model was a Kentucky-bred mare named Sallie Gardner. Showing what had never before been seen by the unaided eye, the series is often cited as an early silent film.

These images created a great stir in Europe and the United States. In Philadelphia, there was an appreciation of the science, technology and the art involved in his work, as well as the financial resources to back his work. In , Muybridge was commissioned by the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia to undertake further studies. As part of the series, Muybridge created photolithographic prints. Working in an outdoor studio that consisted of a three-sided black shed and three batteries of cameras, he created exposers using electromagnets that released the shutters in sequence and at equal intervals.

Improving his photographic techniques, he started using dry plate technology and electronically released shutters that fired sequentially through a clock-driven electrical device and allowed shorter exposure times. The animal models were provided by the nearby Philadelphia Zoo. He studied the movement of a variety of animals, such as elephants, buffalos or horses.

In one series of frames, Muybridge captured a bay horse and her rider proceeding down a track and over a hurdle by using twenty cameras placed at a right angle. These works influenced both scientists and artists, such as the French artists Ernest Meissonier and Edgar Degas who in various versions of Rearing Horse recaptured the positions of the animal fixed by Muybridge. Muybridge also photographed athletic activities such as baseball, cricket, boxing, wrestling, discus throwing, and a ballet dancer performing.

All well-known University athletes, his models showed magnificent physiques and exhibited exquisitely the play of every muscle. Dedicated to scientific accuracy and artistic composition, he posed himself in the nude for some of these sequences, such as this one showing him throwing a disc.

This illusion was created with the persistence of motion principle and it could only practically be viewed by one person at a time. Before Muybridge first captured movement with instantaneous photography in , the device used posed pictures. In , Muybridge created his own device for displaying motion pictures — the zoopraxiscope.

He borrowed the animated illusion of movement from moving image toys and combined it with the capacity for projection embodied in the magic lantern. The device employed glass discs on which pictures in the transparent paint were derived from his chronophotographic plates. The stop-motion images were initially painted onto the glass as silhouettes, while subsequent series of discs used outline drawings printed onto the discs photographically, then colored by hand.

For the first time, it was possible to project sequences of rapid movement informed by the camera onto a screen, marking a pivotal moment in the history of the moving image. For the next 15 years, Muybridge used zoopraxiscope to illustrate his lectures throughout the US and Europe. By , he had stopped using the device and even asked for negatives from of his later color cartoon discs to be utterly destroyed. Feeling these later discs were too far removed in terms of accuracy from his photographic studies, he did not want to damage his professional reputation.

All images via Wikimedia Commons, used for illustrative purposes only. Follow These Artists.

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Eadweard Muybridge

His pioneering work in photographic studies of motion and early work in motion-picture projection is pivotal in the history of the moving image. Muybridge emigrated to the United States from England in the s, where he became famous for his impressive, vast panoramas of American landscapes, such as the Yosemite valley, and his documentation of the rapidly growing nation, particularly in San Francisco. Throughout his career, he lectured extensively in North America and Europe about his work, greatly influencing visual artists and the developing fields of scientific and industrial photography. His model was a Kentucky-bred mare named Sallie Gardner. Showing what had never before been seen by the unaided eye, the series is often cited as an early silent film. These images created a great stir in Europe and the United States.

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Animal Locomotion

Each plate in the series shows the same subject in sequential phases of one action. Muybridge recorded varied forms of movement in a wide range of animals, mostly taken at Philadelphia zoo, from pigeons in flight to the subtleties of gait found in sloths, camels and capybaras. Muybridge also documented human subjects walking, running and descending staircases and engaging in boxing, fencing, weight lifting and wrestling. Born in in Kingston upon Thames, London, Muybridge emigrated to America as a young man and worked as a bookseller. After being injured in a runaway stagecoach crash in Texas he returned to the UK for a five-year period where it is thought he took up photography.

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