DHARMASHASTRAS PDF

Standard The Dharmasutras and Dharmasatras text of Hinduism describe the expectations, duties and role of Brahmins. The rules and duties in these Dharma texts of Hinduism, are primarily directed at Brahmins. Gautama outlines the following rules of conduct for a Brahmin, in Chapters 8 and 9: Virtues more important than rituals A Brahmin man who has performed the forty sacramental rites, but lacks eight virtues does not obtain union with or residence in the same world as Brahman. A man who may have performed just some rites, but possesses these eight virtues, on the other hand, does. Be always truthful Conduct himself as an Aryan Teach his art only to virtuous men Follow rules of ritual purification Study Vedas with delight Never hurt any living creature Be gentle but steadfast Have self-control Be kind, liberal towards everyone Chapter 8 of the Dharmasutra, states Olivelle, asserts the functions of a Brahmin to be to learn the Vedas, the secular sciences, the Vedic supplements, the dialogues, the epics and the Puranas; to understand the texts and pattern his conduct according to precepts contained in this texts, to undertake Sanskara rite of passage and rituals, and lead a virtuous life. The text lists eight virtues that a Brahmin must inculcate: compassion, patience, lack of envy, purification, tranquility, auspicious disposition, generosity and lack of greed, and then asserts in verse 9.

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The were both law books They were compiled in - BC. They would tell people their duties dependent on your class. Societal Organization The oldest male member was the head — known as the Grihapati or Kulapati. The Kings governed with the help of the ministers.

In the Later Vedic Age, kingship became hereditary. In this period, the taxation system and administrative machinery both started. They used iron tools to help them get through the forests. They moved in the eastward and southeastward direction. They gradually settled in the Gangetic valley,this period is also known as the Later Vedic Age The vedic culture was referred as it is because it was based on the Vedic texts Class division- caste system During this time it was said that tribal chiefs and priests had all the treasures and made their treasure grow by stealing from others.

There were many social inequalities. The society was divided in three groups- warriors, priests and people. Since the economy was mainly pastoral and not food producing, there was no scope for collecting regular tributes and taxes from people. The society was still tribal. At the beginning, people had a choice in their professions, but over time, it became hereditary. This resulted in the division of the society into occupational classes.

This took the form of caste and the present caste system emerged. In the later Vedic Period, Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras became four distinct castes or varnas Varnas mean caste castes Firstly, the Brahmans and priests performed religious acts. The Vaishyas engaged in business, looked after agriculture as well as the industry.

Finally, the Shudras served the upper classes. Towards the end of the Later Vedic Age, the caste system became rigid. Brahmans and Kshatriyas enjoyed many privileges. The priests were considered gods on earth. Encyclopedia Britannica, n. The Ancient South Asian World. New York: Oxford UP, Wikimedia Foundation, n. Class division- caste system During this time it was said that tribal chiefs and priests had all the treasures and made their treasure grow by stealing from others.

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History of Dharmaśāstra

Start now Easy editing on desktops, tablets, and smartphones On thinglink. Explore content created by others. Use the ThingLink mobile app to tag images on smartphones and tablets. The were both law books They were compiled in - BC. They would tell people their duties dependent on your class. Societal Organization The oldest male member was the head — known as the Grihapati or Kulapati. The Kings governed with the help of the ministers.

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Dharmasutras and Dharmashastras

The first volume of the work was published in and the last one in This work researched the evolution of code of conduct in ancient and mediaeval India by looking into several texts and manuscripts compiled over the centuries. Dr Kane used the resources available at prestigious institutes such as the Asiatic Society of Mumbai and Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute , among others. The work is known for its expanse and depth — ranging across diverse subjects such as the Mahabharata , the Puranas and Chanakya — including references to previously obscure sources.

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The Dharmashastras The Dharmashastras are the Dharmasutra...

It can be divided into three categories: 1 sutras terse maxims , 2 smriti s shorter or longer treatises in stanzas , and 3 nibandhas digests of smriti verses from various quarters and vrittis commentaries upon individual continuous smritis. The nibandhas and vrittis, juridical works intended for legal advisers, exhibit considerable skill in harmonizing divergent sutras and smritis. The techniques of Dharma-shastra are mainly to state the ancient text, maxim, or stanza; to explain its meaning, where obscure; and to reconcile divergent traditions, if necessary by use of the traditional science of interpretation Mimamsa. Where possible, Dharma-shastra permits custom to be enforced, if it can be ascertained and if its terms do not conflict with the principles of Brahmans members of the priestly class. However, Dharma-shastra provides only the basic principles of the law.

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