Spondias simplicifolia Rottb. Buchanania lanzan is a deciduous tree which produces seeds that are edible to humans. These almond-flavoured seeds are used as a cooking spice primarily in India. After the hard shell is cracked, the stubby seed within is as soft as a pine nut. About 20 species of pine produce seeds large enough to be worth harvesting; in other pines, the seeds are also edible, but are too small to be of notable value as a human food. The charoli seed is lentil-sized, is slightly flattened and has an almond-like flavour.

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It is found in dry deciduous forest of India. A tree of dry region is found in North West and Central India. In the wasteland development and dryland horticulture, it assumes great significance due to its multifarious uses and capacity to withstand adverse climatic conditions. At present, it is growing under forest condition as an under exploited fruit and gives monitory reward to the tribal community of the country and seems to be boon for them.

Very good juice may be prepared from the pulp of chironji fruits. The kernel is highly nutritious and rich in protein Kernel contains The saponifiable part contained Chironji oil is non-repellant and non-toxic and is suitable for human consumption Banerjee and Jain, Hemawathy and Prabhakar reported that total kernel lipid extracted from chironji was The kernels are reported to be used by tribals of Gujarat as brain tonic.

An ointment made out of the kernels is used to cure itch of the skin and to remove blemishes from the face. It is also used in diarrhoea and intercostal pains. The bark furnishes a natural varnish and is used in tanning in Kerala. The leaves are reported to be valued for their tonic and cardiotonic properties, and their powder is a common medicine for wounds.

Chironji provides quality timber wood for various uses. Description: The tree is having meter height with straight trunk, young branches clothed with silky hairs. Leaves thickly coriaceous, broadly oblong, obtuse, sometimes emarginate, glabrescent above, more or less villous beneath, reticulately veined, the nerves and veins impressed on the upper surface, base rounded, main nerves pairs, petioles long about 1. Flowers small, sessile, greenish white, in terminal and axillary pyramidal ferrugineo-pilose panicles which are shorter than the leaves, bracts small, caducous.

Calyx lobes short, broadly ovate, ciliate. Petals long, ovate-oblong, subacute, disk fleshy. Stamens 10, a little shorter than the petals, filaments flattened, anthers about as long as the filaments. Ovaries 1 perfect, conical, villous, the other 4 reduced to cylindrical filaments. Drupes obliquely lentiform in the long diameter, black, stone hard, 2 valved.

Fruits of Thar Priya chironji Genetic diversity: This species is facing severe genetic erosion as a result of activities related to deforestation.

Singh and Chaturvedi, and Chadhar and Sharma, surveyed the chironji growing area and recorded significant differences in morphomatrics and yield attributes. Area and production: Information regarding area and production of this fruit in India is not available because it is not grown on plantation scale. They can be seen growing in forest areas. The production in India is mainly concentrated in the drier states and the produce is collected by the villagers and sold in the local market.

Its cultivation may spread to arid and semi- arid areas, resource-poor areas and wastelands where other crops cannot be grown. Soil and climate: Chironji is very hardy plant and thrives well on rocky, gravelly red soils and also on saline and sodic soils. Though it is a very hardy tree but plants do not survive under waterlogged conditions. It can grow even in pockets of soil between crevices of barren rock. Trees are grown on degraded rocky area including salt-affected soils.

However, for its better growth and productivity, well-drained deep loam soil is ideal. It prefers tropical and subtropical climate and can withstand drought admirably. The peak period of fruit set was recorded in the month of February.

Time taken for complete development of flower ranges from days. Peak period of anthesis was recorded between am. Anther dehiscence commenced after opening of flowers i. Peak period of dehiscence was recorded between 8 am noon. The flower diameter varied from 5. The stamen and carpel length varied from 1. Pollen viability ranged from Pollen germination ranged from Maximum stigma receptivity was recorded in on the day of anthesis.

Crop improvement methods: Selection: In this method, diversity rich area is surveyed to select elite genotypes among its population. After conducting survey, promising genotypes having good horticultural traits, are earmarked and passport data are prepared.

Elite genotypes are multiplied through vegetative propagation and planted at experimental field and evaluated for different morphological, quality and yield attributes. On the basis of performance data, the variety is identified. Hybridization: In this method, flower buds of the cultivars should be emasculated a day prior to anthesis and covered with butter paper bags.

Next morning, emasculated flowers should be pollinated with the pollen of desired cultivars, after pollination, it should be covered again. These bags should be removed after ensuring that the fruit set is taken place.

Varietal wealth: Objectives of varietal improvement: To develop chironji variety having earliness, short stature, precocious bearer, high kernel and protein content and suitable for high density planting under different climatic conditions. The selection out performed in respect of flowering pattern, fruiting and fruit quality attributes. The tree has spreading growth habit, thick trunk, evergreen, dense foliage and drooping branches.

It is regular bearer and flowers in the second week of February. Peak period of fruit set is fourth week of February. It ripens in third week of April. Fruit pulp has total soluble solids Stone weight 0. Fruit yield per plant is Plant propagation: Seed propagation and Raising of seedlings: Chironji plants are generally propagated by seed giving a long gestation period years and large variability. Percent germination in freshly extracted seeds is poor because of hard seed coat on the kernels.

Seed germination of Seeds can be sown on raised beds or in polythene bags about 30 cm deep during June-July and it germinates within days. The seedlings become ready for grafting after one year from the date of sowing.

Vegetative propagation: Soft wood grafting: When one-year-old seedlings raised for rootstock commence putting on new growth and the leaves are of light green colour, these are ready for soft wood grafting. Shoots of months, which have prominent apical bud, are taken as the scion material. Defoliation of such shoots is done days before detaching them from the parent tree for grafting operation. At the time of removal of these shoots, the apical buds should remain intact.

The top of the new growth of the stock is cut and the scion is fitted by cleft grafting or splice grafting. The union is tied with gauge polythene strip. Singh and Singh suggested that softwood grafting in July may be adopted for multiplication of chironji with Freshly extracted seeds are sown in the polythene bags for germination.

After attaining height of cm, it should be directly planted in the field at the desired distance. These vigorous seedlings, attaining pencil thickness after one year are soft wood grafted with scion sticks of the suitable genotypes. Such plants grow very fast and attain a stature in few years. Main advantages of this method are better plant growth and no mortality. In this method of budding, a healthy bud is selected in the axil of 2 months old leaf emerging on new flush.

Leaf blade is removed with the help of sharp knife leaving petiole intact. The upper cut is given about 2. The same rectangle cut is made on the rootstock and bud is placed at the juncture. The bud is pressed by hand to remove open space if any and tied tightly with white polythene strip. In case, if cuts on rootstock are wider, at least one side bark of scion and rootstock must be matched properly. The rootstock is detopped about 10 cm above the bud to facilitate bud sprouting.

The bud sprouts within a month of budding indicating that the bud establishes vascular connection with rootstock. After union, the top of the seedling is cut a little above the bud union and polythene strips are carefully removed. If the selection of scion and rootstock is proper, appreciable success may be obtained during the month of July-August. Root cutting: Experimentally this method has been tried with varying degree of success.

Due to poor viability of seeds and slow growth of seedlings, the Buchnania species has not so for been raised in plantations despite the high price of the kernels in the market. Rooting in root cuttings is vey difficult, however with the use of auxins, appreciable success may be obtained. Two- year old root cuttings having thickness of 3. Root cuttings are found successful, but the method has limited use as it results in serious injury to the mother trees when large number of root cuttings is taken.

Moreover, taproot is also absent in the plants that affect the longevity of the plants particularly in degraded lands. Rootstocks and use of polycontainers: Rootstock selection for vegetative propagation of Chironji is important as it controls the vigour and equilibrium between yield and quality.

Dwarfing rootstocks are considered to be best because they induce dwarf ness and enable to facilitate easy management of the orchard. Such type of work may be initiated and be standardized for different agro climatic conditions.

Raising of rootstock in nursery beds and lifting budded plants with earth ball in highly sandy soils is practically not feasible.


Chironji / Buchanania lanzan

The Chironji tree is an evergreen tree native to India and grows all over the country especially in the Northwest area of India. It grows to a height of about 50 feet, has a straight trunk. The bark is rough and fissured, dark grey to black on the outside and reddish on the inside. The leaves are thick, leathery, oblong and broad and are rounded at the base. The flowers are small and greenish white and form a terminal panicle. The fruit is black in color and are harvested from April to June.


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