Datilar Die Christusmythe What Drews had endeavored to do was to stress the potential development of his own idealistic kind of monist religion in the form of Free Religion with a nationalistic German character. Brandes, author of the Jesus Saga in Lots of astrology and allegory prevail in the Chrietusmythe Testament. Friedlander, in the Alexandrian hyper-Hellenized diaspora. Joseph Hoffmann is a historian of Early Christianity.
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He takes as example the case of Johannes Weiss. How is it that Weinel knows the [innermost nature] of Jesus so well before beginning his inquiry that he thinks he can determine by this test what is spurious in tradition and what is not? The gospels, it seems, are to be understood from "the soul of Jesus", not from the soul of their authors!..
Johannes Weiss There is a further principle, that all that seems possible Johannes Weiss is a master in If any one ventures to differ from him, Weiss bitterly retorts: "Any man who says that these religious ideas and emotions are inconceivable had better keep his hand off matters of religious history; he has no equipment to deal with them" [A classical response of theologians to skeptics.
Mark is merely incorporating an already existing tradition. Photius read through the Chronicle of Justus of Tiberias , a contemporary of Josephus, who went through the Jewish Wars and the destruction of Jerusalem. This letter has aroused the suspicion of Bruno Bauer and Edwin Johnson.
Nero lays the blame for the 64 AD fire of Rome on Christianos, followers of Christus, whose death was ordered by Pontius Pilate in Judaea, who is mentioned as procurator instead of prefect. This passage has given rise to an intense examination of pros and cons. The strange circumstances of the discovery of the manuscript in the 15th century also raised questions. Drews stresses that in the Germany of the s, the genuineness of those four chief "Paulinae" i.
Robertson , Thomas Whittaker ; the Dutch radicals G. Bolland , Willem C. The law Halakha did not make men righteous, and so Jesus Christ was despatched to free men from the law, redeem them and deliver them from sin and death by his own sacrificial death.
By his union with Christ, man becomes dead to the law and gains eternal life. Same idea in the Son of Man of the prophet Daniel. The God figure is linked to the cycle of nature and sun periodicity. Paul enlarged and deepened the idea. The mention of the twelve in 1 Cor. Women at the empty tomb, by Fra Angelico , — About the "visions" in 1 Cor. And the mention that Jesus resurrected appeared to more than brothers seems an interpolation.
The betrayal by Judas is an invention, with paradidonai not meaning "betray", but "give up", Isaiah, , while selecting the "night" for the action is pure stage setting. The preceding text, 1 Cor.
This is an old controversy, but its conclusion remains obscure. Drews finds it impossible to define what kind of man this James is. Identifying who the man is among the too many Jameses in the texts remains utterly "hopeless". Prohibition to part with a wife 1 Cor. Parousia in the clouds 1 Thessalonians and Mark etc.
Who borrows from whom? From Paul into Gospels, or the reverse? Those sayings are not all exceptional, including many banal platitudes from Talmud Romans and Matthew ; Romans and Matthew , etc. Paul knew nothing of Jesus. Paul is not the disciple of a historical Jesus. Paul invokes no distinctive acts of the "Lord", no sayings of Jesus, even when it would have been most useful to his own preaching, for instance on the question of the law.
Even when "[t]hese letters, [are] swarming with dogmatic discussions of the most subtle character", remarks Drews.
The question of genuineness  Drews examines the question of the authenticity of the Epistles, and the Historicity of Paul and starts with a reminder: The Pauline Christ is a metaphysical principle, and his incarnation only one in idea, an imaginary element of his religious system.
The man Jesus is in Paul the idealised suffering servant of God of Isaiah and the just man of Wisdom an intermediate stage of metaphysical evolution, not an historical personality. The Epistle of Clement is not reliable. Papias of Hierapolis was also silent about them. The only tools for analyzing the epistles are internal evidence and philology. Theologians also resort to their "feeling" to detect the powerful personality of Paul, the uninventible originality of the epistles, they even claim they can sense his soul.
Paul of Tarsus, apostle extraordinaire to the Gentiles Van Manen showed that the communities visited by Paul were complex organizations, not newly founded and young. They point to the middle of the 2nd century rather than the middle of the 1st. The Gnostic influence is noticeable. Gift of tongues , circumcisions were still issues in the 2nd century.
Only after the destruction of Jerusalem did Jews and Christians split, turning to enmity and hatred. Later Christians took the side of Romans against the Jews Christians felt they were the new chosen, with a new Covenant , and the Jews had become outcasts and damned. In Romans the Jews are excluded from salvation. In one case the connection between Gnosticism and Paul is so evident that it may be cited as a proof that Paul knew nothing of an historical Jesus; it is the passage in 1 Cor.
It was long ago recognised by van Manen and others that by these princes we must understand, not the Jewish or Roman authorities, nor any terrestrial powers whatever, but the enemies of this world, the demons higher powers, which do indeed rule the earth for a time, but will pass away before the coming triumph of the saviour-God. That is precisely the Gnostic idea of the death of the Redeemer, and it is here put forward by Paul; from that we may infer that he did not conceive the life of Jesus as an historical event, but a general metaphysical drama, in which heaven and earth struggle for the mastery.
Not enough time had passed to elaborate and deepen the new thoughts. The Damascus vision is not enough to explain in Paul such a quick turn-around conversion from zealot Jew to fanatic Christian. Consulted rabbis cannot recognize a student of Judaism in Paul. He thinks Greek, speaks Greek, eats Greek, uses Greek in everything. Paulinism is much closer to the Hellenistic Judaism of Philo and Wisdom. Paul never shows any respect for the sacred texts, distorting or changing their meaning, as in Gal.
His mindset is unique, similar only to other 2nd-century writers, like Hebrews , Barnabas , Justin. The Epistles and the Acts present two radically different stories F. Many intriguing scenarios are possible about the character of Paul, a Jew who turned against the law and Judaism, to give freedom to the new cult: one writer, or many?
The witness of the Gospels[ edit ] This important part IV covers a complete text criticism and historical criticism of Gospel scholarship in , in 14 chapters: 1. The Sources of the Gospels  2.
The Witness of Tradition  3. The "Uniqueness" and "Uninventibility" of the Gospel Jesus  5.
He takes as example the case of Johannes Weiss. How is it that Weinel knows the [innermost nature] of Jesus so well before beginning his inquiry that he thinks he can determine by this test what is spurious in tradition and what is not? The gospels, it seems, are to be understood from "the soul of Jesus", not from the soul of their authors!.. Johannes Weiss There is a further principle, that all that seems possible Johannes Weiss is a master in If any one ventures to differ from him, Weiss bitterly retorts: "Any man who says that these religious ideas and emotions are inconceivable had better keep his hand off matters of religious history; he has no equipment to deal with them" [A classical response of theologians to skeptics.
ARTHUR DREWS DIE CHRISTUSMYTHE PDF
This view had been already advanced by Schweitzer himself in his review of historical criticism in Germany with his book The Quest of vrews Historical Jesus The Pauline Christusmytne is a metaphysical principleand his incarnation only one in ideaan imaginary element of his religious system. Protestants would have set their salvific hopes on a book of fairy tales and oriental myths. The whole consistency of the Gospels artthur their mythical origin. However, he saw religion as an expression of the unconscious World-Spirit anchored in a community tightly rooted on an ancestral territory. Occasionally the suppressed deities emerged, especially under the influence of the Hellenic and Roman culture.